The Frontier Fields’ project has detected the glow of about 200 billion freely drifting stars within the massive galaxy cluster Abell 2744. The stars were dragged from their home galaxies by gravitational tides during collisions and interactions over the course of 6 billion years.
As many as six Milky Way-sized galaxies were torn apart in the cluster. The light of the outcast stars is believed to contribute to 10 percent of the cluster’s brightness, though that light is quite faint because the density of the stars is low. The combination of depth and multiwavelength observations provided by the Frontier Fields program makes this study of such dim stars possible.
The stars are rich in heavy elements such as oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen, which means they formed from material released by earlier generations of stars. The presence of these elements indicates that the stars likely came from galaxies with similar mass and metallicity to our own Milky Way galaxy, which have the ability to sustain ongoing star formation and thus build populations of such chemically enriched stars. Elliptical galaxies are low in star formation while dwarf galaxies lack the kind of constant star formation that would be essential.
This discovery indicates that a significant fraction of the stars that would otherwise end up in these galaxies is being stripped out in the merger process. Astronomers intend to look for the light of such estranged stars in the remainder of the Frontier Fields galaxy clusters.